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A person's job is their role in society. A job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs, such as those of parent, homemaker, and employee. A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from an hour (in the case of odd jobs) to a lifetime (in the case of some judges).

An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. The series of jobs a person holds in their life is their career.

Jobs for people
Most people spend up to forty, or more hours each week in paid employment. Some exceptions are children, those who are retired, and people with certain types of disability, but within these groups many will work part-time or occasionally, will work in one or more volunteer positions, or will work as a homemaker. From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society—and therefore their 'job' -- is to learn and study as a student.
Types of jobs

Jobs can be categorized by the hours per week into full time or part time. They can be categorized as temporary, odd jobs, seasonal, self-employment, consulting, or contract employment.

Jobs can be categorized as paid or unpaid. Examples of unpaid jobs include volunteer, homemaker, mentor, student, and sometimes intern.

Jobs can be categorized by the level of experience required: entry level, intern, and co-op.

Some jobs require specific training or an academic degree.

Those without paid full-time employment may be categorized as unemployed or underemployed if they are seeking a full-time paid job.

Moonlighting is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs, often at night, in addition to one's main job, usually to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for sleep or leisure activities.

The Office for National Statistics in the United Kingdom lists 27,966 different job titles, within a website published 2015.

Day job
The expression day job is often used for a job one works in to make ends meet while performing low-paying (or non-paying) work in their preferred vocation. Archetypal examples of this are the woman who works as a waitress (her day job) while she tries to become an actress, and the professional athlete who works as a laborer in the off season because he is currently only able to make the roster of a semi-professional team.

While many people do hold a full-time occupation, "day job" specifically refers to those who hold the position solely to pay living expenses so they can pursue, through low paying entry work, the job they really want (which may also be during the day). The phrase strongly implies that the day job would be quit, if only the real vocation paid a living wage.

The phrase "don't quit your day job" is a humorous response to a poor or mediocre performance not up to professional caliber. The phrase implies that the performer is not talented enough in that activity to be able to make a career out of it.

Getting a job

Further information: Job hunting and Employment
Getting a first job is an important rite of passage in many cultures. The youth may start by doing household work, odd jobs, or working for a family business. In many countries, school children get summer jobs during the longer summer vacation. Students enrolled in higher education can apply for internships or coops to further enhance the probability of securing an entry level job upon graduation.

Résumés summarize a person's education and job experience for potential employers. Employers read job candidate résumés to decide who to interview for an open position.

During the last years so called Career-oriented Social Networking Sites such as LinkedIn have become more and more popular in order to get a job via social media.
Use of the word

Workers often talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of "land" as a possession (real estate) or intellectual rights as a possession (intellectual property).

Job opening
In economics, a vacancy or job opening refers to a job offered by a firm that wishes to hire a worker. Ideally, the right person is hired at the right time in the right place to work for the organization. The planning, or lead time, necessary to fill the job opening is worked out in advance to allow sufficient time for recruitment, offer, acceptance, notice period and start date.
Occupation and life expectancy

Manual work seems to shorten the lifespan.High rank (a higher position at the pecking order) has a positive effect. Professions that cause anxiety have a direct negative impact on health and lifespan.[5] Some data are more complex to interpret due to the various reasons of long life expectancy; thus skilled professionals, employees with secure jobs and low anxiety occupants may live a long life for variant reasons.[6] The more positive characteristics a job has, the more it attributes on a longer lifespan. Gender, country and actual (what statistics reveal, not what people believe) danger are also notable parameters.

A job description is a list that a person might use for general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, and a salary range. Job descriptions are usually narrative,[1] but some may instead comprise a simple list of competencies; for instance, strategic human resource planning methodologies may be used to develop a competency architecture for an organization, from which job descriptions are built as a shortlist of competencies.

According to Torrington, a job description is usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis considers the areas of knowledge and skills needed for the job. A job usually includes several roles. According to Hall, the job description might be broadened to form a person specification or may be known as "Terms Of Reference". The person/job specification can be presented as a stand-alone document, but in practice it is usually included within the job description. A job description is often used[by whom?] in recruitment.

A job description may include relationships with other people in the organization: Supervisory level, managerial requirements, and relationships with other colleagues.

A job description need not be limited to explaining the current situation, or work that is currently expected; it may also set out goals for what might be achieved in the future.

Prescriptive job descriptions may be seen as a hindrance in certain circumstances:

Job descriptions may not be suitable for some senior managers as they should have the freedom to take the initiative and find fruitful new directions;
Job descriptions may be too inflexible in a rapidly changing organization, for instance in an area subject to rapid technological change;
Other changes in job content may lead to the job description being out of date;
The process that an organization uses to create job descriptions may not be optimal.

Job (/ˈdʒoʊb/; Hebrew: אִיּוֹב, Modern Iyyov, Tiberian ʾIyyôḇ) is the central character of the Book of Job in the Bible. Job (Arabic: أيّوب, Ayyūb‎) is considered a prophet in the Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In rabbinical literature, Iyov (אִיּוֹב) is called one of the prophets of the Gentiles.[1]

Job is presented as a good and prosperous family man who is beset with horrendous disasters that take away all that he holds dear, including his offspring, his health, and his property. He struggles to understand his situation and begins a search for the answers to his difficulties.[2]

Book of Job
The Book of Job begins with an introduction to Job's character—he is described as a blessed man who lived righteously in the Land of Uz. The Lord's praise of Job prompted Satan to challenge Job's integrity, suggesting that Job served God simply because God protected him. God removed Job's protection, allowing Satan to take his wealth, his children, and his physical health (but not his life) in order to test Job's character. Despite his difficult circumstances, he did not curse God, but rather cursed the day of his birth. And although he anguished over his plight, he stopped short of accusing God of injustice.

Most of the book consists of a debate between Job and his three friends concerning Job's condition; they argue whether it was justified, and they debate solutions to his problems. Job ultimately condemns all their counsel, beliefs, and critiques of him as false. The Lord then appears to Job and his friends out of a whirlwind, saying, among many other things, "Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me" Job 38:2-3. After the Lord's command, Job was overwhelmed and said: "Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth. Once have I spoken; but I will not answer: yea, twice; but I will proceed no further" Job 40:4.

Many interpretations read this as Job's realizing how little he knew when he says to the Lord: "My ears had heard of you, but now my eyes have seen you."Job 42:5 Other scholars and readers, however, find this explanation unsatisfactory and rather limited, as Job seems to have a competent understanding of why he has been afflicted by God (God's Will) and has spent much of the book attempting to explain to his friends that their counsel is wrong and fruitless because it contains no real knowledge or wisdom. The core concept of "knowledge and or wisdom" being as quoted from Job 28:28 "And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding". Thus, Job's response to God's demand—Job falling silent before God—falls in line with his prior positional arguments he made against his friends in earlier passages. Job's argument was simply thus: that you don't argue with God or assume you know His Will by placing mankind's concepts of righteousness and wickedness on the balancing scale with earthly gains or losses. God will handle all righteousness and wickedness in His time, whether that be on Earth or in Judgment. Job's present earthly condition was God's Will under Satan's test and non-negotiable. By staying silent before God, Job stresses the point that he understood that his affliction was (God's Will) even though he despaired at not knowing why (Satan's test). Despite his confusion and grief to the mental breaking point, Job remained wise enough to understand that silence was the limit to any man's knowledge with respect to God, be he poor, rich, righteous, old, wise, powerful or wicked. All should "fear the Lord and depart from evil" no matter their current station or changes throughout life. When Job said "My ears had heard of you, but now my eyes have seen you", he was not talking about his ignorance of God; rather, he was talking about his relationship to God. Job was faithful without direct knowledge of God and without demands for special attention from God, even for a cause that all others would declare to be just. Upon Job's relief, he sees God and plays witness to his own faith in action.
Job restored to prosperity

God, acknowledging these virtues in Job, then rebuked the three friends and gave them instruction for remission of sin, followed by Job being restored to an even better condition than his former wealthy state. Job 42:10-17 Job was also blessed to have seven sons, and three daughters named Jemimah (which means "dove"), Keziah ("cinnamon"), and Keren-happuch ("horn of eye-makeup"). His daughters were said to be the most beautiful women in the land.[3] "After this, Job lived another hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four generations." Job 42:16

The characters in the Book of Job consist of Job, his wife, his three friends, a man named Elihu, God, Satan and the sons of God. Neither the patriarchs nor any other biblical characters make an appearance.

Though not much is known about Job based on the Masoretic text, the Septuagint has a longer final verse that gives his genealogy, claiming him to be a grandson of Esau and a ruler of Edom. The longer verse reads: "And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up."
Septuagint Job

See also: Jobab ben Zerah

According to the last chapter of Job in the Greek Septuagint, Job was once a ruler of Edom.
Books of the Ketuvim
Three poetic books

  Psalms Proverbs Job

Five Megillot (Scrolls)

  Song of Songs Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther

Other books

  Ezra–Nehemiah (Ezra Nehemiah)

Hebrew Bible

  v t e

"This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans."[4]
In other religious texts

In addition to the Book of Job, Job is mentioned in several religious texts:

  He is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel.[5]
  He is cited as someone "who held fast to all the ways of justice" in the deuterocanonical Sirach.[6]
  He is praised for his perseverance in the Christian Epistle of James.[7]
  He is discussed as a prophet in the Quran.
  He is the protagonist of a pseudepigraphal book called the Testament of Job.
  He is also mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants, one of the four sacred texts of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).[8]
  In the Bahá'í writings: A lengthy tablet was written by Bahá'u'lláh, the first part of which is focused on Job. The Tablet is often referred to as the Tablet of Patience or the Tablet of Job.

Job in Judaism
Main article: Job in rabbinic literature
Scroll of Book of Job, in Hebrew

A clear majority of Rabbinical Torah scholars saw Job as having in fact existed as a powerful and historically factual figure. Some Rabbinic scholars maintain that Job was in fact one of three advisors that Pharaoh consulted, prior to taking action against the increasingly multiplying "Children of Israel" mentioned in the Book of Exodus during the time of Moses' birth. The episode is mentioned in the Talmud (Tractate Sotah): Balaam gives evil advice urging Pharaoh to kill the Hebrew male new-born babies; Jethro opposes Pharaoh and tells him not to harm the Hebrews at all, and Job keeps silent and does not reveal his mind even though he was personally opposed to Pharaoh's destructive plans. It is for his silence that God subsequently punishes him with his bitter afflictions.[9] However, the Book of Job itself contains no indication of this, and to the prophet Ezekiel, Yahweh refers to Job as a righteous man of the same calibre as Noah and Daniel.[10]

There is a minority view among Rabbinical scholars, for instance that of Rabbi Simeon ben Laqish, that says Job never existed (Midrash Genesis Rabbah LXVII). In this view, Job was a literary creation by a prophet who used this form of writing to convey a divine message. On the other hand, the Talmud (in Tractate Baba Batra 15a–16b) goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job actually lived, citing many opinions and interpretations by the leading sages. Job is further mentioned in the Talmud as follows:[11]

  Job's resignation to his fate (in Tractate Pesachim 2b).
  When Job was prosperous, anyone who associated with him even to buy from him or sell to him, was blessed (in Tractate Pesachim 112a).
  Job's reward for being generous (in Tractate Megillah 28a).
  King David, Job and Ezekiel described the Torah's length without putting a number to it (in Tractate Eruvin 21a).

Christian views

Christianity accepts the genesis of Job as canon in the Old Testament and thus contains the same information regarding Job as discussed above in the Hebrew Bible. In addition, Job is mentioned in the New Testament: the Epistle of James James 5:11 cites Job as an example of patience in suffering.

Job's declaration, "I know that my redeemer liveth", Job 19:25 is considered by some Christians to be a proto-Christian statement of belief, and is the basis of several Christian hymns, as well as the opening scene of Part III of Handel's Messiah.

He is commemorated by the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in their Calendar of Saints on May 9, by the Roman Catholic Church on May 10, and by the Eastern Orthodox Church on May 6.

He is also commemorated by the Armenian Apostolic Church on May 6 and December 26, and by the Coptic Orthodox Church on April 27 and August 29.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also confirms the existence of Job: "Thou art not yet as Job; thy friends do not contend against thee, neither charge thee with transgression, as they did Job" (D&C 121:10). Latter-day Saints hold in high esteem the life, example and righteousness of Job, and consider him a model of perseverance and endurance to the end.
Islamic views and Quranic account
Main article: Job in Islam

In the Qur'an, Job (Arabic: أيّوب, Ayyūb‎) is considered a prophet in Islam.[12] The narrative frame of Job's story in Islam is similar to the Hebrew Bible story but, in Islam, the emphasis is paid to Job remaining steadfast to God and there is no record of his bitterness or defiance,[13] or mention of lengthy discussions with friends. However, later Muslim literature states that Job had brothers, who argued with the man about the cause of his affliction.[14] Some Muslim commentators also spoke of Job as being the ancestor of the Romans.[14] Muslim literature also comments on Job's time and place of prophecy, saying that he came after Joseph in the prophetic series and that he preached to his own people rather than being sent to a specified community. Tradition further recounts that Job will be the leader of the group of "those who patiently endured" in Heaven.[15]

The Qur'an mentions Job's narrative in a concise manner. Historical literature, however, fleshes out Job's story and describes him as being a late descendant of the patriarch Noah.[16] Similar to the Hebrew Bible narrative, Islamic tradition mentions that Satan heard the angels of God speak of Job as being the most faithful man of his generation.[17] Job, being a chosen prophet of God, would remain committed in daily prayer and would frequently call to God, thanking God for blessing him with abundant wealth and a large family. But Satan planned to turn the God-fearing Job away from God and wanted Job to fall into disbelief and corruption.[17] Therefore, God allowed Satan to afflict Job with distress and intense illness and suffering,[17] as God knew that Job would never turn away from his Lord.

The Qur'an describes Job as a righteous servant of Allah (God), who was afflicted by suffering for a lengthy period of time. However, it clearly states that Job never lost faith in God and forever called to God in prayer, asking him to remove his affliction:

  And Job, when he cried unto his Lord, (saying): Lo! Adversity afflicteth me, and Thou art Most Merciful of all who show mercy.
  — Qur'an, sura 21 (The Prophets), ayah 83[18]

The narrative goes on to state that after many years of suffering, God ordered Job to "Strike with thy foot!".[19] At once, Job struck the ground with his foot and God caused a cool spring of water to gush forth from the Earth, from which Job could replenish himself. The Qur'an says that it was then that God removed his pain and suffering and He returned Job's family to him, blessed him with many generations of children and granted him great wealth. In addition to the brief descriptions of Job's narrative, the Qur'an further mentions Job twice in the lists of those whom God had given special guidance, wisdom and inspiration (IV: 163) and as one of the men who received authority, the Book and the gift of prophethood (VI:84).